The basic strategy in blackjack refers to a unique set of guidelines on how to act based on your own cards and the dealer's card. This approach was not developed easily, and the first to rigorously study it were the so-called "The four horsemen": Roger Baldwin, William Cantey, Herbert Maisel, James McDermott, who published a study on the subject in 1956.
Subsequently, Professor Edward O. Thorp of M.I.T. University further perfected the strategy to be adopted. It's important to emphasize that the rules of blackjack are not uniform, and there are various variants. There isn't a universal "basic strategy," but different strategies depend on the number of decks in play and the specific rules adopted by the casino.
To facilitate this process, a useful tool has been developed—the basic strategy generator. This tool, by setting the specific game rules, provides the correct basic strategy.
It's important to note that the house advantage is calculated assuming that the player has the possibility to split a maximum of 3 times, with only one split on aces. To obtain the house advantage in other situations, you can refer to a house advantage calculator.
When we talk about basic strategy, we refer to a "total-dependent" strategy. For discussions about "Composition-Dependent" exceptions, you can refer to the "articles" section.