Biased wheels

Some roulette wheels, due to a combination of manufacturing defects and uneven wear, exhibit imperfections that favor the selection of specific numbers, offering an advantage to those who bet on them.


The pioneer in exploiting defective roulette wheels, Joseph Jagger, an English engineer, achieved notable success in Monte Carlo around 1873, amassing approximately $330,000. Jagger and his team of six individuals dedicated several weeks to observing and monitoring winning numbers. Once they identified a roulette wheel meeting their criteria, they undertook a series of successful exploits. Notably, the defects were more pronounced during that era.


Subsequent teams engaged in similar exploits, including:

  • Southern Italians, primarily in Monte Carlo.
  • The Dutch, primarily in France.
  • Argentinians, primarily in Argentina.
  • The Jones Boys, primarily in Reno.
  • The "Hibbs and Walford team," primarily in Las Vegas.
  • The Markers, primarily in Venice.

In San Remo, Italy, a team led by Richard Jarecki, a wealthy professor of Polish origins, operated successfully between 1968 and 1969, securing winnings close to one billion lire. The casino administration responded with restrictive measures against him.

One of the most successful teams in recent times was led by Willy Walters, who closed business in 1989 with profits exceeding $5 million, spanning Las Vegas, Lake Tahoe, and Atlantic City.

While some believe that modern roulette wheels are meticulously crafted and thoroughly controlled, the existence of exploitable flaws persists. Even in the late '80s, despite skepticism, the Willy Walters team achieved unprecedented success by exploiting defects.


Today, numerous individuals, including myself, profit from this technique. In Northern France, for instance, there exists a casino with a "perfect" roulette wheel. I won't disclose specific casinos, as that would be counterproductive, but I can help you mathematically assess whether a roulette wheel is likely to be defective.


We've compiled a treatise dedicated to Biased roulette wheels, covering topics such as:

  • Reasons for roulette wheels becoming biased.
  • Bias in the 21st century.
  • Quick assessments to determine if a roulette wheel is worth further investigation.
  • Defects in individual pockets.
  • Sector defects.
  • Dispelling the myth of needing 5000 observation shots.
  • The real, not fixed, number of shots required for reasonable guarantees of defect presence.
  • Recognizing a biased roulette wheel through number recordings and simple statistical tests.
  • The significance of adjacent numbers to the "candidate" to ascertain a real defect.
  • Creating an Excel program for data analysis.
  • Capital required to manage inevitable losses.
  • Techniques employed by casinos to defend against exploitation.
  • Techniques employed by players to overcome casino defenses.
  • Camouflage and cheating: How players used "inside" information to locate suitable roulette wheels.



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